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British historian of evolutionary biology, Peter Bowler, wrote The Norton History of the Environmental Sciences , which devoted eight pages to history of biogeography, but is of interest primarily for providing a broad context for the history of biogeography. A popular book on the history of biogeography is science journalist David Quammen's Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions , pages.
He began discussing Linnaeus, Darwin, and Wallace and ended by interviewing living biogeographers and discussing their contributions. Australian biogeographer Malte Ebach's Origins of Biogeography , pages covers the period — He argued that the history of ideas is not enough; we need to know also the history of practice. He examined a wide range of sources.
His book has no index. American biogeographer Charles H. These websites show that contributions to biogeography during this period, —, were more numerous than are included here. A Dutch Protestant minister, Abraham van der Mijle Myl, — , was perhaps first to identify a fundamental biogeographical problem in his De Origine animalium et migration populorum : how to explain the unique species found in the Americas and Australia von Hofsten , Hooykaas , Browne , Ebach — He sorted through the obvious possibilities without finding a plausible answer.
His solution was that there had to have been different centers of creation. An English Protestant minister who had to give up that profession , John Ray — , was the main founder of British natural history Raven , Stresemann —45, —45, Webster , Browne : see index, Mandelbrote , Egerton , a — Ray's notable Catalogus plantarum circa Cantabrigiam nascentium , English was one of the earliest local floras Raven Ray had a patron, zoologist Francis Willlughby — , and after Willughby died Boulger and Hunter , he set aside his botany in order to publish Willughby's Ornithologiae , English , which included much of his own annotations.
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Ray apparently learned to do two things at the same time: He published Willoughby and his own Historia Piscium in the same year as the first volume of his own Historia Plantarum. Both the ornithology and the history of fishes were well illustrated, though by neither Willughby nor Ray; Willughby had bought illustrations during a tour which they made on the Continent. Ray's Historia Insectorum appeared posthumously.
His desire to travel came true with his appointment as physician to a diplomatic mission to Persia in In —, he served as a ship's physician and arrived in Java. In , he went on the annual voyage to Japan, where he remained until October He returned to Holland in His Amoenitatum exoticarum included a description of nearly species of Japanese plants.
His History of Japan two volumes, , which Hans Sloane had translated and first published in English, included observations on the Japanese fauna. Hans Sloane — was a successful London physician interested especially in plants, who became physician to a new governor of Jamaica and sailed there with him in Stresemann , De Beer , , Desmond —, Rice — After collecting observations and specimens of plants and animals and recording climate, he returned to London, where he became a prominent scientist, President of the Royal Society, —, and published Catalogus Plantarum quae in insula Jamaica and Voyage to the islands Madeira, Barbadoes, and Jamaica, with the Natural History of Jamaica two volumes, These volumes included data for biogeography; Sloane's other contribution to this science came from having the trustees of his will use his collections and wealth to found the British Museum, with his collections as nucleus.
Sloane was a sometime patron of the English naturalist Richard Bradley — , who was a very productive writer Egerton , —, a a , a a. He was the leading botanist in France and Europe in his day, and he explored for plants in Europe, and in —02 in the Levant; his Relation d'un Voyage du Levant appeared posthumously three volumes, Paris, ; edition 2, two volumes, Amsterdam; English, London, Pierre Guiral's account of that expedition contains two modern maps; Tournefort's trip interests us particularly because at Mount Ararat he observed patterns of plant distribution at different elevations into zones that matched comparable geographic regions volume 3, letter 19, as quoted in English translation, Linnaeus :.
Linnaeus indicated that this line of reasoning began with Andrea Cesalpino — , but gave no reference; he had in mind Cesalpino's De Plantis In the s and s, there were explorations in Russia and Siberia, led by German naturalists, who took along Russian students.
Also exploring for Russia was the Danish sea captain, Vitus Bering — , who discovered that Siberia was not connected to North America George a , b , Golder , Frost , Egerton —42, a a — During those decades, particularly outstanding were two Germans, Gmelin and Steller. He began attending university lectures at age 14, and he earned a medical degree in In , two of his former teachers had gone to St. Petersburg and joined the Academy of Sciences. They invited him to join them in , and in , he became an academician.
In July , the Academy sponsored an expedition to Siberia, which Gmelin joined and continued his explorations for 9. Petersburg in February Gmelin There, he worked on his Flora Sibirica four volumes, , which described 1, species. He listed plants in six categories of ranges: In category two, he listed European plants not found in Siberia and Siberian plants rare in Europe; in category six, he listed species in Siberian fields and in European mountains Larson Zoologist Georg Steller — studied medicine and became a physician with the Russian army in and traveled to St.
Petersburg and met botanists at the botanic garden Stejneger , Lindroth , Mearns and Mearns —, —, Jones :index. He met and sailed with Bering, and his travels and natural history and geographical observations were many and varied Ford , Steller , , Hintzsche and Nickol , Littlepage , Egerton —50, a a : 94— When they landed briefly on an island off Alaska, he discovered a jay, now named Steller's Jay. The return voyage was difficult Steller , After they landed on what expedition members named Bering Island after he died there, in autumn Expedition members, including Steller, discovered what is now called Steller's sea cow Hyadrodamalis gigas , the largest Sirenia ever discovered—up to 30 feet long and weighing 8—10 metric tons Stejneger , —, Ford —, Mattioli and Domning During a desperate winter, it became an important resource which helped them survive.
When expedition survivors reached Kamchatka in , its existence was among the discoveries reported, and hunting expeditions to Bering Island began in , and they exterminated the species in Steller's account of sea cow is the only one ever made. In early , he left by dog sled for St. Linnaeus began his speculative essay on increase in the habitable earth with the Garden of Eden, which he postulated was a small island; since all species of plants and animals have a reproductive potential to increase their populations, the land mass of the earth gradually increased, and various species expanded in numbers to fill the new lands ; English, —; French, —55; von Hofsten , Egerton a : 80— Later, he developed a dynamical, if simplistic, balance of nature concept, in which God created species at particular locations, and they increased in population and spread across land that also increased; some species prevented other species from becoming too numerous—based upon their reproductive potential—by either predation or competition Linnaeus , English, —; French, —; Egerton —, a a , a a — Alpine Phytogeography , slightly abridged :.
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Linnaeus gave an excellent summary of the vegetation belts of Scandinavian mountains. He stated the fundamental importance and climatic significance of alpine forest line. Important vegetation difference between ordinary wet mountains of Lapland and dry lichen heath mountains of Dalarne was discovered and described Notes on habitats of alpine plants were often remarkably accurate and detailed.
Vivid picture of contrast between alpine and lowland florae of Sweden. Emphasized differences between different alpine florae a, b, He believed these differences were due to incomplete dispersal. Frequent occurrence of alpine plants along rivers in the conifer forest belt was discovered , , who advanced this as plant dispersal by running water. One of his original ideas was the suggestion that as species spread, they were changed into different species by new environments which they invaded; he also speculated that humans may have exterminated mammoths and mastodons, known from bones Egerton , b b , a a : 84— He concluded that no species found on one continent also exists on another continent Buffon , , translated in: Nelson —, Ebach —24, Larson — His sponsors expected him to spend most of his time in Canada, but he preferred Philadelphia and vicinity.
He observed American animals as well as plants. By , Denmark was ready to send out its own expedition, though not as far as Bering's two. Denmark was the first European country to send an expedition to Arabia.
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Bernstorff to pursue it—not personally, but to find those who would go. Bernstorff convinced King Frederick V, and by January , there were five professional men who sailed from Copenhagen toward Constantinople, then into Egypt before reaching Arabia. His work was preserved, and an editor was found who published it Three world explorations — which Captain James Cook — led are relevant to the history of biogeography because naturalists he took along collected plants and animals and published their observations. Banks planned to return for Cook's second voyage, but he had been so celebrated by British society after the first voyage that he had delusions of grandeur, and withdrew when his entourage of 15 including musicians were not allowed on board MacLean — Instead, Johann Reinhold Forster — became naturalist, and he insisted that his son J.
Georg Forster — be taken along as his assistant and as nature artist von Hofsten , Stresemann —79, —76, Hoare a , b , Stafleu and Cowan :I, —, Desmond —, Browne —38, Mearns and Mearns —, —, Quammen —39, Rice — Although the father was a constant complainer, he was a capable and industrious naturalist, as was his son Stresemann —79, —76, 93—94, Larson —, Both father and son published books of observations.
Johann's book is deservedly republished in a critical edition , for the global voyage gave him a global perspective. He was quite interested in geographical distributions of species of plants and animals. On Cook's third voyage, the physician William Anderson, who had been on the second voyage, collected natural history specimens, but neither he nor Cook lived to complete that voyage Stresemann , An American marine in the British Navy, John Ledyard — , published his account of part of the third voyage in reprinted Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant — attended Oxford University, but left without a degree due to conflict with faculty von Hofsten —, Allen —, Urness , Desmond , Browne , Bircham —90, Egerton d : , Birkhead :index, Jones :index.
He became a member of the Royal Society of London and several foreign societies.
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He and others suggested to Gilbert White that he write letters on his natural history observations, and 44 such letters to Pennant became a major part of White's Natural History of Selborne Although John Ray believed in bird migration in quoted in Birkhead , there was a medieval belief that a few song bird species, like bats, hibernate during winter. Albertus Magnus had added his authority to the idea Egerton a : 90, Birkhead , and although Gilbert White relied heavily upon his own observations and upon his brother John's observations on migrations at Gibraltar, he remained uncertain about whether swallows migrated or hibernated Egerton d d , a a : 89—92, Bircham —, Birkhead — Arctic Zoology included mammals volume 1 and birds volume 2.
His account of the musk ox includes —I, 10 : They are very numerous between the latitudes 66 and 73 north, which is as far as any tribes of Indians go. They live in herds of twenty or thirty.
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Hearn [in —] has seen in the high latitudes several herds in one day's walk. They delight most in the rocky and barren mountains, and seldom frequent the woody parts of the country. They run nimbly, and are very active in climbing the rocks. Pennant was a very productive and skillful naturalist, but a few times he borrowed from others without acknowledgment Bircham Pennant and Pallas discussed below met before Pallas went to Russia, and they assisted each other Urness When Michel was about 20, his father looked around for what to do with a son oriented toward botany, and a friend, a director of the Compagnie des Indes, suggested sending him to Senegal, where his own son had visited Nicolas — The company decided it would be useful for a naturalist to learn about territory under its jurisdiction, and Michel was able to get recommendations from prominent Parisian naturalists, so that was where he was sent in December , as a clerk.
He was possibly the first European naturalist to spend several years in the tropics, where he remained until He built a garden for conducting breeding experiments on plants, though at first he did not spend a lot of time there, since he explored the surrounding territories in quest of plants and animals. His dried bird skins were quickly rendered worthless by insects.
pactcredpetic.ga Other members of the Compagnie looked upon him as strange, and so he became friendly with the natives.