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The second half of Edward’s reign
Contents:
  1. The Kingmaker's Daughter
  2. Edward IV of England
  3. Cite this page
  4. A Daughter of Warwick by Julie May Ruddock

Elizabeth Woodville. King Richard III. Richard, Duke of York and Duke of Norfolk.

Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy. Sir John Crosby.

The second half of Edward’s reign

Thomas Stanley, 1st Earl of Derby. George, Duke of Clarence.

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke. Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and 6th Salisbury. Ralph Neville, 4th Earl of Westmorland.

The Kingmaker's Daughter

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Help us make history Become a Member. Normal view. Hence the Treaty of Picquigny was made by which Edward agreed to withdraw from France in return for 75, gold crowns down and a pension of 50, gold crowns a year. These sums helped to free Edward from dependence on parliamentary grants. As he grew older, he showed considerable ingenuity in raising money by reviving obsolescent rights and using doubtfully legal devices. Commercial treaties with France , Burgundy , and the Hanseatic League combined with external peace and growing internal order to revive trade strikingly after , and this benefitted the customs duties and other revenues.

Edward became a trader himself, transporting goods in his own ships and those of foreign merchants.

Edward IV of England

He began a reorganization of the revenues from the crown estates, experimenting with methods of improving yields and promoting more efficient auditing under officials of the flexible royal household treasury instead of the unadaptable Exchequer. These and other measures enabled him to leave behind a fortune; some of his improved financial administration was continued and developed by his successors Richard III and Henry VII.

One especially disturbed area was Wales and the Welsh marches; Edward used the royal estates there as a foundation on which to base a council that acted in the name of his infant heir, the Prince of Wales, and employed the royal prerogative to make a start in repressing disorder.

It was the forerunner of the council of Wales and the marches that subjugated the area to English rule. Modern research has emphasized these administrative achievements of Edward IV, and contemporary and Tudor historians viewed his later years as a time of prosperity and success. He rebuilt St.

Cite this page

He was also a friend and patron of the printer William Caxton , and his book collection became the foundation of the Old Royal Library, later one of the glories of the British Museum. As a young man Edward had been trustful and openhanded, but his experiences made him increasingly suspicious, leading him in to execute his brother George, duke of Clarence , who in former years had sided with Warwick against him.

In , Louis XI, in order to come to terms with the rulers of Burgundy, tacitly repudiated the Treaty of Picquigny and the annual tribute that it provided. Edward contemplated a fresh invasion of France, but before it could be carried out he fell ill and died at the age of only You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Edward IV.

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A Daughter of Warwick by Julie May Ruddock

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Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick

See Article History. Read More on This Topic. During the early years of his reign, from to , Edward was chiefly concerned with putting down opposition to his rule.